Part Number: ATmega, Maunfacturer: Atmel, Part Family: AT, File type: PDF, Document: Datasheet – semiconductor. Atmel ATMEGAMI SL Explore Integrated Circuits (ICs) on Octopart: the fastest source for datasheets, pricing, specs and availability. The ATmega is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR Revision F and onwards are now covered in ATmega datasheet.
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AVR is a family of microcontrollers developed since by Atmelacquired by Microchip Technology in AVR microcontrollers find many applications as embedded systems. They are especially common in hobbyist and educational embedded applications, popularized by their inclusion in many of the Arduino line of open hardware development boards. The designers worked closely with compiler writers at IAR Systems to ensure that the AVR instruction set provided efficient compilation of high-level languages.
Atmel says that the name AVR is not an acronym and does not stand for anything in particular. Among the first of the AVR line was the AT90S, which in a pin DIP package has the same pinout as an microcontroller, including the external multiplexed address and data bus.
The AVR 8-bit microcontroller architecture was introduced in ByAtmel had shipped million AVR flash microcontrollers. The AVR is a modified Harvard architecture machine, where program and data are stored in separate physical memory systems that appear in different address spaces, but having the ability to read data items from program memory using special instructions. Some devices have a parallel external bus option to allow adding additional data memory or memory-mapped devices.
Program instructions are stored in non-volatile flash memory. Although the MCUs are 8-bit, each instruction takes one or two bit words. The size of the program memory is usually indicated in the naming of the device itself e.
There is no provision for off-chip program memory; all code executed by the AVR core must reside in the on-chip flash. Some small models also map the program ROM into the data address space, but larger models do not. The very smallest of the tinyAVR variants use a reduced architecture with only 16 registers r0 through r15 are omitted which are not addressable as memory locations.
In addition, these devices have slight deviations from the standard AVR instruction set. Conversely, the indirect load instruction’s LD bit address space is expanded to also include non-volatile memory such as Flash and configuration bits; therefore, the Load Program Memory LPM instruction is unnecessary and omitted.
For detailed info, see Atmel AVR instruction set. The actual SRAM is located after these ranges, starting at Note that erase and write can be performed separately in many cases, byte-by-byte, which may also help prolong life when bits only need to be set to all 1s erase or selectively cleared to 0s write. Atmel’s AVRs have a two-stage, single-level pipeline design. This means the next machine instruction is fetched as the current one is executing.
Most instructions take just one or two clock cycles, making AVRs relatively fast among eight-bit microcontrollers. The AVR processors were designed with the efficient execution of compiled C code in mind and have several built-in pointers for the task. The AVR instruction set is more orthogonal than those of most eight-bit microcontrollers, in particular the clones and PIC microcontrollers with which AVR competes today.
However, it is not completely regular:.
ATMEGA Datasheet(PDF) – ATMEL Corporation
Additionally, some chip-specific differences affect code generation. The mostly regular instruction set makes programming it using C or even Ada compilers fairly straightforward. In fact, Atmel solicited input from major developers of compilers for small microcontrollers, to determine the instruction set features that were most useful in a compiler for high-level datashest.
Lower-powered operation usually requires a reduced clock speed. All recent Tiny, Mega, and Xmega, but not 90S AVRs feature an on-chip oscillator, removing the need for external clocks or resonator circuitry. Some AVRs also have a system clock datashfet that can divide down the system clock by up to This prescaler can be reconfigured by software during run-time, allowing the clock speed to be optimized.
Branches in the latest “3-byte PC” parts such as ATmega are one cycle slower than on previous devices. AVRs have a large following due to the free and inexpensive development tools available, including reasonably priced development boards and free development software.
The AVRs are sold under various names that share the same basic core, but with different peripheral and memory combinations. There are many means to load program code into an AVR chip. In order to avoid the chip accidentally entering such mode, it is advised to connect a pull-up resistor between the RESET pin and the positive power supply.
All that is needed is a 6-pin connector and programming adapter. This is the most dwtasheet way to develop with an AVR. A volt signal, however, is something the AVR should only see during programming and never during normal operation.
ATmega169 Datasheet PDF
The high voltage mode can also be used in some devices where the reset pin has been disabled by fuses. High-voltage parallel programming HVPP is considered the “final resort” and may be the only way to correct bad fuse settings on an AVR chip. At reset, the bootloader runs first and does some user-programmed determination whether to re-program or to jump to the main application. The code can re-program through any interface available, or it could read an encrypted binary through an Ethernet adapter like PXE.
Atmel has application notes and code pertaining to many bus interfaces. The AVR offers several options for debugging, mostly involving on-chip debugging while the chip is in the target system. It is particularly useful for lower pin count parts which cannot provide the four “spare” pins needed for JTAG.
JTAG can also be used to perform a boundary scan test,  which tests the electrical connections between AVRs and other boundary scan capable chips in a system. Boundary scan datawheet well-suited for a production line, while the hobbyist is probably better off testing with a multimeter or oscilloscope. Official Atmel AVR development tools and evaluation kits contain a number of starter kits and debugging tools with support for most AVR devices:. The signal routing board sits between the base board and the target board, and routes the signals to the proper pin on the device board.
There are many different signal routing boards that could be used with a single target board, depending on what device is in the ZIF socket. The chip can be programmed with a dongle connected to the parallel port. LEDs visible through the translucent case indicate the state of target power. In such occurrences, a programmer capable of sourcing greater current is required. There is no area for any additional circuitry, although this can be provided by a third-party product called the “Dragon Rider”.
The debugWire interface enables debugging using only one datzsheet the Reset pinallowing debugging of applications running on low dtaasheet microcontrollers. The board includes the LCD screen, joystick, speaker, serial port, real time clock RTCflash memory chip, and both temperature and voltage sensors. The AVR Butterfly comes preloaded with software to demonstrate the capabilities of the microcontroller. Factory firmware can scroll your name, display the sensor readings, and show the time.
The AVR Butterfly also has a piezoelectric transducer that can be used to reproduce sounds and music.
A pre-installed bootloader program allows the board to be re-programmed via a standard RS serial plug with new programs that users can write with the free Atmel IDE tools. This small board, about half the size of a business card, is priced at slightly more than an AVR Butterfly. Only the JTAG port uses conventional 2.
Atmel ships proprietary source code included but distribution restricted example programs and a USB protocol stack with the device. All these boards support JTAG-based development. The kit includes two AVR Raven boards, each with a 2. The radios are driven with ATmegap processors, which are supported by a custom segmented LCD display driven by an ATmegap processor. Raven peripherals resemble the Butterfly: These are intended for use in developing remote sensor nodes, to control relays, or whatever is needed.
These are intended to monitor and control the remote nodes, relying on host power rather than local batteries. A wide variety of third-party programming and debugging tools are available for the AVR. AVRs have been used in various automotive applications such as security, safety, powertrain and entertainment systems.
Atmel has recently launched a new publication “Atmel Automotive Compilation” to help developers with automotive applications. The ATmega and ATmega, with more pinout and memory capabilities, have also been employed to develop the Arduino Mega platform.
Arduino boards can be used with its language and IDEor with more conventional programming environments Cassembleretc.
The link between the controllers and Xbox is USB. Numerous companies produce AVR-based microcontroller boards intended for use by hobbyists, robot builders, experimenters and small system developers including: With the growing popularity of FPGAs among the open source community, people have started developing open source processors compatible with the AVR instruction set.
In addition to the chips manufactured by Atmel, clones are available from LogicGreen Technologies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
ATtiny microcontroller comparison chart. Atmel AVR instruction set. Archived from the original on Retrieved 10 June Retrieved 14 Jun Datashee reset line has an internal pull-up resistor, but if the environment is noisy it can be insufficient and reset can therefore occur sporadically. Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 13 January atmfga169 Archived at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 7 November LogicGreen Technologies, a clone of the ATmega Retrieved 22 August Single-board microcontroller Special function register.
Embedded system Programmable logic controller. Reduced instruction set computer RISC architectures. Retrieved from ” https: