The mfecane was partly caused by changes in the Nguni groups that resulted in the development of the Zulu nation. Stronger leaders began to. The causes of the mfecane were emerging by the end of the eighteenth century, when population levels increased rapidly, and ecological resources were. Mfecane: Mfecane, (Zulu: “The Crushing”) series of Zulu and other Nguni wars In South Africa itself the Mfecane caused immense suffering and devastated.

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Mvulane’s son Ngqengelele became Shaka’s induna and chief advisor. The Sotho causees —69 Shaka In Shaka: Our newsletter keeps you up to date with all new papers in your subjects.

Request a new password via email. At that time the Zulus were a very weak ethnic group under the leadership of Senzangakhona. The Zulus conquered and assimilated smaller clans in the area. This forced migration was caused by a series of wars that engulfed the area between different states over land and resources. Eldredge also asserts that Cobbing downplays the importance of the ivory trade in Delagoa Bay, and the extent to which African groups and leaders sought to establish more centralised and complex state formations to control ivory routes and the wealth associated with the trade.

An analysis of how decentralisation contributes to good governance South African History Online.

The Mfecane and Its Effects | Publish your master’s thesis, bachelor’s thesis, essay or term paper

The agricultural surpluses and increased population enabled Shaka to raise a standing army of Zulus. The Formation of an African State. There was a problem with your submission. Theology – Practical Theology. It was characterized by severe punishments that caused untold bloodshed and fortune of the Zulu people and other parts of central and EastAfrical begun from the northern Zululand and then to rest of the Bantu area in South Africa.


Another one of the factors that led to the Mfecane was the refugee problem created by the cxuses. The areas where the Nguni originally lived became heavily populated and there was an increase in competition for the few places that had cultivable land as well as grazing lands which later led to fighting and conquest.

By the end of the 18th century, the Zulus occupied much of their arable land.

The Tswana were pillaged by two large invasionary forces set cauees the move by the Mfecane. Challenges and Opportunities for the Church in the The adoption of corn as a major staple gave this drought an even greater impact than those of the past because corn needed much more water than local grains in order to produce.

For instance the Ndwandwe and Ngwane lived close to each other cauess the Pongola Valley and as their populations grew there was an increase in demand for cultivable lands.

Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. When the rains failed, therefore, the effect was devastating. Some critics assert that revisionist theories such as Cobbing’s placed too much weight on environmental factors and ignored the key roles played by dynamic human agents such as the Mfcane king Shaka.

Growing desire to control the profitable trade for example Shaka and Dingiswayo who fought various wars in order to control Oelagoa Bay to get modem weapons in exchange for locally produced goods i.

Moshoeshoe I gathered the mountain clans together in an alliance against the Zulus.

What had caused the Mfecane?

But a combination of internal disputes and war against the Swazi caused the downfall of the Gaza kingdom. Also, Mosheshwe who emerged as a leader of the Sotho after the decline of the Zulu Kingdom was able build a very strong off kingdom that later developed into what is now Lesotho in Southern Africa.


Need to engage in the prosperous trade Shaka and Dingiswayo wanted to control. The kingdom of Shaka the Zulu is now an important topic in the history of Southern Africa. English Language and Literature Studies – Literature. InSoshangane invaded various Portuguese settlements, and was initially successful.

The Zulu cauuses was to absorb only the women and young mfecnae of a clan or village. They were respectively led by kings Sobhuza of NgwaneZwideand Dingiswayo and were the most powerful ethnic groups.

This period of revolutionary change–known as the mfecane pf crushing–see Glossary by the Zulu and the difaqane see Glossary by the Sotho–is also often referred to as “the time of troubles” see fig. Contact our editors with your feedback.

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These three ethnic groups are to this day found in the same areas. The series of wars that came to be known as the Mfecane happened between the s and s along the coast and in valleys of Southern Africa especially the Pongola River valley.

The Swazi composite was built by the Ngwane after they crossed the Pongola river and other Sotho and Nguni chiefdoms after they came into the region. There was massive loss of life fmecane destruction of property i.

Thanks to mfecan study guides written by fellow students specifically for your courses, you will never miss a trick when it comes to your exams. Mfecane led to the evolution of strong centralized governments I.