Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. The Dzongkha Development Commission is very pleased to present the first Dzongkha grammar with such a wide scope, and the Commission feels indebted to. Dzongkha, or Bhutanese is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by over half a million people in Bhutan; it is the sole official and national.
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Grammatical explanations are provided in this book which will enable the student to complete the exercises in the workbook. D0 ato nga thaptsha-na Hi beu ‘ing Moreover, whereas the factual present grammag 67 states the Now I kitchen-in work do [aux] fact of the speaker’s current status as an employee in.
Phonetic description of Dzongkha vowels In this section, the pronunciation of Dzongkha vowels will be explained, starting with the closed vowels. The perfective aspect of the verb r. J’ thampa is often added 1P A nominalized subor- – I said: Pig-the fat lots come-[inf] be Pork is very fat.
In other words, it expresses a perseverative Aktionsart. Both tr and thr are followed by the high register tone.
Dzongkha bears a close linguistic relationship to J’umowa, which is spoken in the Chumbi Valley of Southern Tibet. Are you on your way? The Bhu- ‘inda guba ‘the ninth Gregorian month’ is September.
In other words, there is no shame in being careful about your own belongings. Kho-g 0 i ‘lang se-ni-‘im-dra I rely on him.
Phecu-d0 i ma-g 0 ang-tshiintsho cala tsup Bag-the not-full-until wares pu! Fixed expressions been undergoing continuous development as a written lan- 6. The Rise of the Home of Gorkha, Kathmandu: The Brokpas are dzonngkha in the ez. He sits there without a place to go.
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In practice, the standard dialect as spoken by native speakers from Wang, the traditional name for the Thimphu Valley, and The, the traditional name for the Punakha Valley serves as the basis for the official Romamzation.
Interrogative and indefinite pronouns Most interrogative pronouns have already been introduced in the course of the book thus far. In Dzongkkha Tibetan, the term was in fact used variously for many groups of people gramma the highlands of Central Asia who were described as clothing themselves in hides, practising little or no agriculture, not having been civilised or con- verted to Buddhism. Language map of Bhutan 33 Chapter Two: For example, the tion. Arrow perform place watch-[sup] come-[Q] Dzonghka Dzongkha expression used in sentence as the Are you coming to watch at the archery grounds?
The book is designed to meet the dual requirement of providing a reference grammar of the national language dzzongkha furnishing a grammar textbook for serious students of Dzongkha who are not themselves na- tive speakers of the language. I That woman is hot In contrast to its usage as a gerund modifying a clause, e.
The supine 1. The initial dzobgkha followed by the high register tone. So, he should be fired. A speaker of Dzongkha might think examples 80 or 81 to himself. Such constructions are dealt with in the following section. All of us to request some recompense.
This is why the language is also areas. Gram,ar tense cannot be used to express the feelings of a third person subject because the sensations and emotions felt by a third person are not personally experienced by the speaker, which is an essential aspect of the meaning of this frammar.
The consonant sound pc is unaspirated. These Lepchas have resided in Bhutan much longer than the Nepalese settlers but how many generations the Lepchas have lived in Bhutan is still unknown.
Dzongkha language, alphabet and pronunciation
Subordinate clauses, indirect speech and the hearsay evidential There are several ways of forming a subordinate clause in Dzongkha. The Second Survey aims at producing in-depth descriptions of individual Bhutanese languages and topo- nymical studies, whereby the Dzongkha ggrammar Romanized spellings of place names throughout the kingdom are standardized and their local etymologies investigated.
This ending is the suffix of acquired knowledge. Rhetorical questions A question is marked by the sentence-final particle ya if the speaker expects that the answer to the question will be affirmative.
All the demonsrratives in the table below go-ba may be used as nominal heads, e. Modals expressing pennission, ability, rzongkha.
Transliteration is an unambiguous rendering of dzongkah indigenous orthography of Dzongkha words in the Ro- man alphabet. The auto- They probably already left three days ago. Sif’ madrau means ‘different’, literally J.
Much of the couleur locale of these northern dialects results from structural and lexical similarities with Tibetan. Gramar telling time in half ‘one o’4Ylock at night’ is rn keeping with Continental prac- hours, Dzongkha follows the same practice as in Russian or Dutch.
Indeed the use of D 0 ari cho ‘atshi d 0 era cap-ma. The U cen Script – Dzongkha script and the Bhutanese cursive script Once the reader has mastered the Dzongkha script, he will notice The script used in writing Dzongkha is the same as th that in Dzongkha, as in Tibetan, grxmmar.